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Subbu Apparsundaram

Subbu Apparsundaram

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Focus:DrugDiscovey Development(

  • Lead drug discovery projects for advancing NCEs andNMEs; 3 lead NCEs and 3 lead NMEs in pipeline for IND submission
  • Leadtranslationaland nonclinical for thediscovery and development of novel therapeutics
  • Implement cutting edge and stateoftheart research strategies in collaboration withPharma/Biotech industries, academia, and hospitals for advancing novel therapeutics
  • Provide scientific and administrative leadership to V ClinBio team for accomplishing company goals pertaining toresearch partnerhips/collaborations



Focus: Major depressionand respiratory disease areas

  • Provided pharmacology leadership for advancing three clinical candidates to firstin human studies in depression and respiratory disease therapeutic areasProvided team leadership for in vitro pharmacology studies for multiple researchprojects and enabled research teamsto achievelead selection, lead optimization and clinical candidate selection milestones
  • Contributed widely to pharmacology studiestargeting receptors, transporters and ion channelsManaged research activities performed through CROsand due diligence of inlicensing projects
  • Facilitated IND submissions by providing pharmacology data reports and interpretation
  • Received Roche Pharmaceuticals Research Award for implementing new assay protocols that doubled team productivity and reduced assay cost by 50%



Focus: Regulation of brain cholinergic and monoaminergic pathwayswith relevance to Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and major depression

  • Secured and managed $1million in research fundingto study cholineand monoaminetransporter function and regulation
  • Developedand managed research projects involving pharmacological and neurochemical assays in vivo and in vitro
  • Directed doctoral and master level research work and enabled graduation of 1 Ph.D.and3M.S. candidates
  • Obtained National Alliance for Research in Schizophrenia and Depression Young Investigator Award
  • Received the University of Kentucky Wethington Research Awards, 4 consecutive years


  • Innovation in Pharma, MBA Accelerated Certificate Course, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey(2012)
  • Postdoctoral training in Neuroscience & Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee(19951998)
  • Ph.D. in Pharmacology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas(1995)
  • M.S. in Pharmacology, L.M. College of Pharmacy, Gujarat University, India (1988)
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences, Madras Medical College, University of Madras, India (1986)



1.Cheng DT, Ma C, Niewoehner J, Dahl M, Tsai A, Zhang J, Gonsiorek W,Apparsundaram S, Pashine A, Ravindran P, Jung J, Hang J, Allard J, Bitter H, Tribouley C, Narula S, Wilson S, Fuentes ME.Thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor blockade reduces allergic inflammation in a cynomolgus monkey model of asthma.J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:45562.

2.Tang X, Peng R, Phillips JE, Deguzman J, Ren Y,Apparsundaram S, LuoQ, Bauer CM, Fuentes ME, Demartino JA, Tyagi G, Garrido R, Hogaboam CM, Denton CP, Holmes AM, Kitson C, Stevenson CS, Budd DC. Assessment of Brd4 Inhibition in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Lung Fibroblasts and inVivo Models of Lung Fibrosis.Am J Pathol. 2013;183:4709.

3.Chen G, Panicker S, Lau KY, Apparsundaram S, Patel VA, Chen SL, Soto R, Jung JKC, Ravindran P, Okuhara D, Bohnert G, Che Q, Rao PE, Allard JD, Badi L, Bitter HM, Nunn PA, Narula SK, DeMartino JA. Characterization of novel CRAC inhibitor that potently blocks human T cell activation and effector functions. Mol. Immunol; 2013; 54: 355367.

4.Tang X, Peng R, Ren Y,ApparsundaramS, Deguzman J, Bauer CM, Hoffman AF, HamiltonS, Liang Z, Zeng H, Fuentes ME, Demartino JA, Kitson C, Stevenson CS, Budd DC. BETbromodomainproteinsmediatedownstreamsignalingeventsfollowinggrowthfactorstimulationinhumanlungfibroblastsandareinvolvedinbleomycininducedpulmonaryfibrosis.Mol.Pharmacol. 2013; 83:283293.

5.Ren Y, Guo L, Tang X,ApparsundaramS, Kitson C, Deguzman J, Fuentes ME, Coyle L, Majmudar R, Allard J, Truitt T, Hamid R, Chen Y, Qian Y, Budd DC.Comparing the differential effects of LPA on the barrier function of human pulmonary endothelial cells. Microvasc.Res.2013; 85:5967.

6.Liu X, Vilenski O, Kwan J, Apparsundaram Sand Weikert R. Unbound brain concentration determines receptor occupancy: a correlation of drug concentration and brain serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter occupancy for eighteen compounds in rats. Drug Met.Disp.2009; 37:15481556.

7.Zhu J, Apparsundaram S and Dwoskin LP. Nicotinic receptor activation increases [3H]dopamine uptake and cell surface expression of dopamine transporters in rat prefrontal cortex J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2009; 328:931939

8.Apparsundaram S, Stockdale DJ, HenningsenRA, Milla ME, Martin RS. Antidepressants targeting the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) act via a competitive mechanism.J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther.2008; 327:982990

9.Martin RS, Henningsen RA, Suen A, Apparsundaram S, Leung B, Jia Zhongjiang, Kondru RK and Milla ME.Kinetic and thermodynamic assessment of binding of serotonin transporter inhibitors.J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther.2008; 327:9911000

10.Middleton LS, Apparsundaram S, KingPospisil KA, Dwoskin LP. Nicotine increases dopamine transporter function in rat striatum through a traffickingindependent mechanism. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 554:128136.

11.Apparsundaram SThe norepinephrine transporter and regulation of synaptic transmission. Ordway GA, Swartz MA and Frazer A, editors. Brain Norepinephrine: Neurobiology and Therapeutics, Cambridge: Cambridge University;2007. 119155 pp.Nickell J, Salvatore MF, Pomerleau F, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA. Reduced plasma membrane surface expression of GLAST mediates decreased glutamate regulation in the aged striatum. Neurobiol Aging 2007; 28: 17371748.

12.Parikh V, Apparsundaram S, Kozak R, Richards JB, Sarter M. Reduced expression and capacity of striatal highaffinity choline transporter in hyperdopaminergic mice. Neuroscience2006; 141:379389.

13.Apparsundaram S, Martinez V, Parikh V, Kozak R, Sarter M.Increased capacity and density of choline transporters situatedin synaptic membranes of the right medial prefrontal cortex of attentional taskperforming rats. J. Neurosci. 2005; 25:3851385.

14.Zhu J, Apparsundaram S, Bardo M, Dwoskin L.Environmental enrichment reduces dopamine transporter function and cell surface expression in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. J. Neurochem. 2005; 93:14341443.

15.Akers WS, Shah SK, Flynn JD and Apparsundaram S. Effect of clonidine on cardiac norepinephrine spillover in isolated rat heart. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2004; 43:830838.

16.Gates J, Ferguson SM, Blakely RD and Apparsundaram S.Regulation of presynaptic choline transporter phosphorylation and surface expression by protein kinase C and protein phosphatase 1/2A..J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2004; 310:536545.

17.Zhang L, FletcherTurner A, Marchionni MA, Apparsundaram S, Lundgren KH, Yurek DM, Seroogy KB. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of the neuregulin glial growth factor2 on dopaminergic neurons in rat primary midbrain cultures. J. Neurochem.2004; 91:13581368.

18.Sung U,Apparsundaram S, Galli A, Kahlig KM, Savchenko V, Schroeter S, Quick M and Blakely RD.A regulated interaction of syntaxin 1A with the antidepressantsensitive norepinephrine transporter establishes catecholamine clearance capacity. J. Neurosci. 2003; 23:16971709.

19.Salvatore MF, Apparsundaram Sand Gerhardt GA. Decreased plasma membrane expression of the striatal dopamine transporter in aging. Neurobiology of Aging 2003; 24: 11471154.

20.Ferguson SM, Valentina S, Apparsundaram S, Zwick M, Wright J, Levey AI, Heilman, CJ, Yi H, Levey AI and Blakely RD.Vesicular localization and activitydependent trafficking of presynaptic choline transporters. J. Neurosci.2003; 23:96979709.

21.Partridge JG, Apparsundaram S, Gerhardt GA, Ronesi J and Lovinger DM. Nicotinicacetylcholine receptors interact with dopamine in induction of striatal longterm depression. J.Neurosci.2002; 22:25412549

22.Apparsundaram S, Sung U, Price R and Blakely RD. Traffickingdependent and independent pathways of neurotransmitter transporterregulation differentially involving p38 MAP kinase revealed in studies of insulin modulation of norepinephrine transport in SKNSH cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.2001; 299:666677.

23.Apparsundaram S, Ferguson SM and Blakely RD.Molecular cloning and characterization of a murine, hemicholinium3sensitive transporter. Biochemical Society Transactions 2001; 29: 711716.

24.Apparsundaram S. Function and regulation of monoamine transporters: Focus on the norepinephrine transporter. CNS Spectrum 2001; 6:671678.

25.Apparsundaram S, Ferguson SM, George A and Blakely RD. Molecular cloning of a human, hemicholinium3sensitive choline transporter. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 2000; 276:862867.

26.Schroeter S,Apparsundaram Sand Blakely RD. Immunolocalization of cocaineand antidepressantsensitive norepinephrine transporters in rat brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 2000; 420:211232.

27.Bauman AL, Apparsundaram S, Ramamoorthy S, Wadzinski BE, Vaughan RA and Blakely RD. Cocaine and antidepressantsensitive biogenic amine transporters exist in regulated complexes with protein phosphatase 2A. J. Neurosci. 2000; 20:75717578.

28.Apparsundaram S, Galli A, DeFelice L, Hartzell HC and Blakely RD. Acute regulation of norepinephrine transport: I. Proteinkinase Clinked muscarinic receptors influence transport capacity and transporter density in SKNSH cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998; 287:733743.

29.Apparsundaram S, Schroeter S, Giovanetti E and Blakely RD. Acute regulation of norepinephrine transport: II. PKCmodulated surface expression of human norepinephrine transporter proteins. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998; 287:744751

30.Zhu MY, Apparsundaram S, Blakely RD and Ordway GA. Downregulation of the human norepinephrine transporter in intact 293hNET cells exposed to desipramine. J. Neurochem. 1998; 70:15471555.

31.Blakely RD, Ramamoorthy S, Schroeter S, Qian Y, Apparsundaram S, Galli A and DeFelice LJ. Regulated phosphorylation and trafficking of antidepressantsensitive serotonin transporter proteins. Biological Psychiatry1998; 44:169178.

32.Jayanthi LD, Apparsundaram S, Malone D, Miller D, Eppler M and Blakely RD. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene T23G5.5 encodes a cocainesensitive dopamine transporter: Molecular cloning and expression of CeDAT. Mol. Pharmacol. 1998; 54:601609.

33.Apparsundaram S, Moore KR, Malone MD, Hartzell HC and Blakely RD. Molecular cloning and characterization of an lepinephrine transporter from sympathetic ganglia of the Bullfrog, Rana catesbiana. J. Neurosci. 1997; 17:26912702.

34.Blakely RD and Apparsundaram S.Structural diversity in the catecholamine transporter gene family: Molecular cloning and characterization of an lepinephrine transporter from bullfrog sympathetic ganglia. Advances in Pharmacology 1997; 42:206210.

35.Apparsundaram Sand Eikenburg DC. Prejunctional alpha adrenoceptor desensitization in rat heart after chronic epinephrine treatment. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1996; 278:862870.

36.Apparsundaram Sand Eikenburg DC. Role of prejunctional beta adrenoceptors in rat cardiac sympathetic neurotransmission. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1995; 272:519526.

37.Bond RA, Leff P, Johnson TD, Milano CA, Rockman HA, McMinn TR, Apparsundaram S, Hyek MF, Kenakin TP, Allen LF and Lefkowitz RJ. Physiological effects of inverse agonists in transgenic mice with myocardial overexpression of the beta2 adrenoceptors. Nature (Lond.) 1995; 374:272275.

38.Vyas SJ, Apparsundaram S, Ricci A, Amenta F and Lokhandwala MF. Biochemical, autoradiographic and pharmacological evidence for the involvement of tubular DA1 receptors in the natriuretic response to dopexamine hydrochloride. NaunynSchmeidberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 1991; 343:2130.

39.Chen C, Apparsundaram Sand Lokhandwala MF. Intrarenally produced angiotensinII opposes the natriuretic actions of the dopamine1 receptor agonist fenoldopam in rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.1991;256:486491.

40.Apparsundaram S, Bhat RV, Santani, DD and Goyal RK. Presynaptic dopamine receptors in rat anococcygeus muscle. Indian J. Pharmacol. 1989; 21:120128.